Record Heat for October 2015

30 11 2015

Dale C. S. Destin |

A number of temperature records were broken or equalled during October across much of Antigua and Barbuda. The first day of October, we measured at the at the Met Office, located V. C. Bird International Airport (VCBIA), the highest temperature on record for the month – 34.0 °C (93.2 °F), and the fifth highest for all months dating back to 1971.


We also recorded the second highest temperature for October – 33.9 °C (93.0 °F), and the sixth highest ever recorded at VCBIA.

These extreme temperatures were a part of a heatwave which began on September 30 and continued through October 7. During this time, the daily maximum temperatures were at record high or among the 10 percent highest temperatures for the given period.

The eventual mean daily maximum temperature (the mean of highest temperature for each day) was 31.2 °C (88.2 °F) or 0.6 °C (1.1 °F) warmer than normal. It tied with five other Octobers for the highest for the month.

Meanwhile, relative to October, minimum temperatures were quite oppressive. Many nights saw record or near record high minimum temperatures. There was a record number of “warm nights” (minimum temperature among the top 10 percent highest) – 12, shattering the previous record of 8 the month.

The mean minimum temperature (the mean of lowest temperature for each day) tied with that of October 2001 for the highest on record for the month.

The mean minimum temperature – 25.5 °C (77.9 °F) was 1.1 °C (2.0 °F) higher than normal. The excess (anomaly) above the usual mean minimum temperature for October was around twice that of the excess above the usual mean maximum temperature. Thus, the cooling that normally occurs at night did not take place, allowing for very little needed respite from the heat.

The overall, the mean daily temperature was also near record high – 28.1 °C (82.6 °F) or 0.6 °C (1.1 °F) higher than normal. It tied with 2001 for the third highest for October.

Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) around Antigua and Barbuda were also at record high levels for the month – 29.6 °C (85.3 °F) or 0.9 °C (1.6 °F) warmer than usual and tied with 2013 for the warmest SSTs for our area for October, dating back to 1854.


October also saw record high SSTs across the tropical North Atlantic and Caribbean Sea – 28.6 °C (83.5 °F) or 0.7 °C (1.3 °F) higher than normal.

On a global scale, it was the warmest October on record with the global mean surface temperature was near 15.0 °C (59.0 °F) or 1.0 °C (1.8 °F) higher than usual.

Much of the warmth across Antigua and Barbuda and the rest of the region were due to the persistent weak nature of the Atlantic high pressure system, mainly during September, which translated into light winds that allowed for SSTs to soar.

We will let you know if this warm trend continued through November, shortly.

Drought Expected to Continue

30 11 2015

Dale C. S. Destin |

The main news coming out of the Caribbean Climate Outlook Forum (CariCOF), held at the Marriott Resort, St. Kitts, November 26-27, is that below to near normal rainfall is expected to continue for most of the Caribbean. This means that it is highly likely that drought will continue, worsen or develop across most of the region.


Over the last twenty-four months, many parts of the Caribbean have had record or near record low rainfall over various periods. The red in the standard precipitation index (SPI) map below shows severely dry weather across most islands. This has been mainly due to El Nino and Saharan Dust.


The forecast also calls for higher than normal temperatures for the upcoming six months. All things being equal, these unseasonal temperatures will worsen the impacts of the drought by causing more than normal evaporation.

The 2015 Dry Season CariCOF brought together representatives from the region’s weather and climate services and climate sensitive sectors to discuss the next season’s forecasts and its potential socio-economy implications on the region.

Of course, having looked at the potential implications of the forecasts, it is anticipated that the sector-leaders would implement plans to mitigate possible negative impacts and maximise potential opportunities.

The actual forecasts were produced during the pre-CariCOF training workshop for meteorologists and climatologists, November 23-25, at the above mentioned venue.

During the workshop, the Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology (CIMH) unveiled the Caribbean Outlook Generator (CAROGEN).  CAROGEN is a potential game changing tool. It is expected to significantly reduce the time and stress linked with the production of climate forecasts for the region.

Another highlight of the pre-CariCOF workshop was the media training. This is a part of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) efforts to promote the value of climate services to island nations, such as ours.

The training was conducted by David Eades – world renowned journalist and celebrity with the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC).  He shared with us some of the “tricks of the trade” including understanding what journalists are looking for and framing effective messages.

In the short-term, water conservation and efficiency measures should be ramped up, to cope with the ongoing shortage of rainfall. For the medium to long-term, strategies, including those to increase water storage capacity and improve drought management plans, are required to build resilience to drought.

Congratulations to Adrian Trotman and his CIMH team for organizing another very successful CariCOF! The next CariCOF is schedule for May/June 2016 in Dominica. It is expected to have a special focus on the link between climate and health.

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